Juneau ak birth records 1903 florence skuse

Results — of , Cottage where Charles Skuse was born with modern extension. Child was Florence Mary Skuse b. Nettie Frear is home again after spending the past three weeks caring for Mrs.

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Use quotation marks around a set of keywords to search for that exact phrase. The high abortion rate of 45,X embryos indicates that patients with Turner syndrome and 45,X karyotype could be mosaics , in at least one phase of embryo development or cellular lineage, due to the need for the other sex chromosome presence for conceptus to be compatible with life. In cases of structural chromosomal aberrations or hidden mosaicism , conventional cytogenetic techniques can be ineffective and molecular investigation is indicated.

Two hundred and fifty patients with Turner syndrome stigmata were studied and 36 who had female genitalia and had been cytogenetically diagnosed as having "pure" 45,X karyotype were selected after metaphases were analyzed in order to exclude mosaicism and the presence of genomic Y-specific sequences SRY, TSPY, and DAZ was excluded by PCR. Additionally, the CAG repeats contain two methylation-sensitive HpaII enzyme restriction sites, which can be used to verify skewed inactivation.

The laboratory identification of the second X chromosome and its inactivation pattern are important for the clinical management hormone replacement therapy, and inclusion in an oocyte donation program and prognostic counseling of patients with Turner syndrome. Sex chromosome abnormalities and psychiatric diseases. Excesses of sex chromosome abnormalities in patients with psychiatric diseases have recently been observed.

It remains unclear whether sex chromosome abnormalities are related to sex differences in some psychiatric diseases. While studies showed evidence of susceptibility loci over many sex chromosomal regions related to various mental diseases, others demonstrated that the sex chromosome aneuploidies may be the key to exploring the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. In this review, we will outline the current evidence on the interaction of sex chromosome abnormalities with schizophrenia, autism, ADHD and mood disorders. Chromosome chains and platypus sex : kinky connections.

Mammal sex determination depends on an XY chromosome system, a gene for testis development and a means of activating the X chromosome. The duckbill platypus challenges these dogmas. Instead they suggest that the original platypus sex chromosomes were derived from the ZW chromosome system of birds and reptiles.

Unraveling the puzzles of sex determination and dosage compensation in the platypus has been complicated by the fact that it has a surplus of sex chromosomes. Rather than a single X and Y chromosome , the male platypus has five Xs and five Ys. Copyright c Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Detection and quantitation of chromosomal mosaicism in human blastocysts using copy number variation sequencing. Currently, our understanding of the nature and reproductive potential of blastocysts associated with trophectoderm TE lineage chromosomal mosaicism is limited.

The objective of this study was to first validate copy number variation sequencing CNV-Seq for measuring the level of mosaicism and second, examine the nature and level of mosaicism in TE biopsies of patient's blastocysts. TE biopy samples were analysed by array comparative genomic hybridization CGH and CNV-Seq to discriminate between euploid, aneuploid and mosaic blastocysts.

In an expanded study of blastocysts using CNV-Seq as the sole diagnostic method, the proportion of diploid-aneuploid mosaics 34, 8. Genetic conflict and sex chromosome evolution. Chromosomal sex determination systems create the opportunity for the evolution of selfish genetic elements that increase the transmission of one sex chromosome at the expense of its homolog.

Because such selfish elements on sex chromosomes can reduce fertility and distort the sex ratio of progeny, unlinked suppressors are expected to evolve, bringing different regions of the genome into conflict over the meiotic transmission of the sex chromosomes. Here we argue that recurrent genetic conflict over sex chromosome transmission is an important evolutionary force that has shaped a wide range of seemingly disparate phenomena including the epigenetic regulation of genes expressed in the germline, the distribution of genes in the genome, and the evolution of hybrid sterility between species.

Chromosome abnormalities in sperm of individuals with constitutional sex chromosomal abnormalities. The most common type of karyotype abnormality detected in infertile subjects is represented by Klinefelter's syndrome, and the most frequent non- chromosomal alteration is represented by Y chromosome long arm microdeletions. Here we report our experience and a review of the literature on sperm sex chromosome aneuploidies in these two conditions. Non mosaic 47,XXY Klinefelter patients 12 subjects show a significantly lower percentage of normal Y-bearing sperm and slightly higher percentage of normal X-bearing sperm.

Consistent with the hypothesis that 47,XXY germ cells may undergo and complete meiosis, aneuploidy rate for XX- and XY-disomies is also increased with respect to controls, whereas the percentage of YY-disomies is normal. Although the great majority of children born by intracytoplasmic sperm injection from Klinefelter subjects are chromosomally normal, the risk of producing offspring with chromosome aneuploidies is significant.

Men with Y chromosome microdeletions 14 subjects showed a reduction of normal Y-bearing sperm, and an increase in nullisomic and XY-disomic sperm, suggesting an instability of the deleted Y chromosome causing its loss in germ cells, and meiotic alterations leading to XY non-disjunction. Intracytoplasmic injection of sperm from Y-deleted men will therefore transmit the deletion to male children, and therefore the spermatogenic impairment, but raises also concerns of generating 45,X and 47,XXY embryos. Copyright S. Karger AG, Basel. Preferential accumulation of sex and Bs chromosomes in biarmed karyotypes by meiotic drive and rates of chromosomal changes in fishes.

Mechanisms of accumulation based on typical centromeric drive or of chromosomes carrying pericentric inversions are adjusted to the general karyotype differentiation in the principal Actinopterygii orders.


Here, we show that meiotic drive in fish is also supported by preferential establishment of sex chromosome systems and B chromosomes in orders with predominantly bi-brachial chromosomes. The mosaic of trends acting at an infra-familiar level in fish could be explained as the interaction of the directional process of meiotic drive as background, modulated on a smaller scale by adaptive factors or specific karyotypic properties of each group, as proposed for the orthoselection model.

Mosaic male fetus of Turner syndrome with partial chromosome Y: A case report. Turner syndrome, characterized by the presence of a monosomy X cell line, is a common chromosomal disorder. Patients with Turner syndrome are usually phenotypically female, and male cases are rarely reported. The fetus was initially misdiagnosed as female with Turner syndrome by both noninvasive prenatal testing and cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid and was subsequently found to have male anatomy by antenatal ultrasonography at 24 weeks gestational age.

Through single nucleotide polymorphism-array and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing, we found that there was a truncated Y chromosome with sex -determining region Y SRY present in some cells of the fetus, which caused the male features in the fetus.

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Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis.

However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation.

These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

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Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes. Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy.

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However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR qPCR across 37 snake species our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes.

We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae. The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than species.

The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are pseudo autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. Conservation of sex chromosomes in lacertid lizards. Sex chromosomes are believed to be stable in endotherms, but young and evolutionary unstable in most ectothermic vertebrates.

Within lacertids, the widely radiated lizard group, sex chromosomes have been reported to vary in morphology and heterochromatinization, which may suggest turnovers during the evolution of the group. We compared the partial gene content of the Z-specific part of sex chromosomes across major lineages of lacertids and discovered a strong evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes.

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Molecular data demonstrating an evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes have also been documented for iguanas and caenophidian snakes. It seems that differences in the evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes in vertebrates do not reflect the distinction between endotherms and ectotherms, but rather between amniotes and anamniotes, or generally, the differences in the life history of particular lineages. Female heterogamety in Madagascar chameleons Squamata: Chamaeleonidae: Furcifer : differentiation of sex and neo- sex chromosomes.

Amniotes possess variability in sex determining mechanisms, however, this diversity is still only partially known throughout the clade and sex determining systems still remain unknown even in such a popular and distinctive lineage as chameleons Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae. Here, we present evidence for female heterogamety in this group. Notably, its neo-W chromosome is partially heterochromatic and its female-specific genetic content has expanded into the previously autosomal region. Showing clear evidence for genotypic sex determination in the panther chameleon, we resolve the long-standing question of whether or not environmental sex determination exists in this species.

Together with recent findings in other reptile lineages, our work demonstrates that female heterogamety is widespread among amniotes, adding another important piece to the mosaic of knowledge on sex determination in amniotes needed to understand the evolution of this important trait. Dosage Compensation of the Sex Chromosomes. Differentiated sex chromosomes evolved because of suppressed recombination once sex became genetically controlled. Often, aneuploidy causes abnormal levels of gene expression throughout the entire genome.

Dosage compensation mechanisms evolved to restore balanced expression of the genome. These mechanisms include upregulation of the heterogametic chromosome as well as repression in the homogametic sex. Remarkably, strategies for dosage compensation differ between species. In organisms where more is known about molecular mechanisms of dosage compensation, specific protein complexes containing noncoding RNAs are targeted to the X chromosome. In addition, the dosage-regulated chromosome often occupies a specific nuclear compartment.